|This page is dedicated to those historical figures who for the importance in Italian military history have given their name to aircraft, vehicles, ships or corps of Italian Armies.|
|Giuseppe Garibaldi (1807-1882)|
|Hero of Italian Risorgimento, he born in Nizza son of Domenico Garibaldi,sea captain, and Rosa Raimondi from Loano. Fifteen years old he followed in father's footsteps sailing as ship-boyand beginning himself captain in 1832.|
During his voyages he knew G.Mazzini in 1833 at Marsiglia and enteredthe Giovine Italia, the secret society whose members wished an Italy without rule. In 1834 he enlisted theSardinian Navy and was charged to rise at Genova, at the same time of the Mazzini's revolts in Savoia, occupyingthe frigate Des Geneys on which he was sailed; but the revolt failed and he hid in Marsiglia where he knew tohave been condemned to death for treason.
So Garibaldi leaved to South America where in 1836 he supportedthe rebels of Rio Grande do Sul against the government of Don Pedro II, attacking the Brasilian ships along thecoasts and rivers of Brasil. After several war actions the republican hopes failed and Garibaldi leaved the regiongoing to Montevideo in 1841. Here he meet Anita who married in 1842 having three sons. Too in Uruguay hefought versus Argentina commanding the fleet and creating an Italian legion wearing the famous red shirts.He distinguished himself in the battles of Cerro, of Salto and of river San Antonio in 1847, and was designatedgeneral and commander of the defence of Montevideo.
In june 1848 he returned in Italy, where already thetroops of Carlo Alberto fought versus Austrians. He led battalions of volunteers and defeated the Austriansat Luino, occupying Varese, but attacked from more forces he was obliged to flee in Switzerland. After theSalasco armistice he returned to Genova where was elected a member of Parliament, but he refused preferringto go to Rome in support to Repubblica Romana. Here in 1849 he defeated the French troops at Porta S.Pancrazioand the Neapolitans at Palestrina. But the French got the better of the Garibaldi volunteers at Gianicolo andon 2 July he was obliged to leave the town pursued from the enemies; reached S.Marino he ordered to his soldiersto lay down the arms and fled with fewer men towards Cesenatico; here he sailed a bragozzo was able to escapethe Austrians landing at Magnavacca (today Porto Garibaldi), going on his way until to the farmstead Guiccioli,where Anita, pregnant and exhausted but always at his side, died in his arms. Therefore he reached Portovenere (near La Spezia) pursued vainly from Austrians and Papal troops. The Savoyard government, to avoid politicalcomplications, invited him to go away, and so Garibaldi embarked for Tangeri, after for New York, where heworked in a candles factory, then was in Mid America, in Cina and in England. In 1854 he returned to Nizza and in 1857 buy some lands on Caprera island, where devoted himself to the agriculture.
But it doesn't stop here! Indeed in 1859 the king Vittorio Emanuele II elected him general of Savoyard armycommanding the Alps Riflemen; during the 2nd indipendence war he defeated the Austrians at S.Fermo occupyingVarese, Como, fought at Magenta entering at Bergamo, Brescia and in Valtellina. after the Villafranca armisticehe leaved the army and retired in Genova.
In 1866 during the third indipendence war he was still on the road against the Austrians defeated at Bezzecca; then during the march to Trento he was reached from the news of the armistice and the order of the king toleave the area; Garibaldi replayed with the famous<< Obbedisco >> (I obey).
Finally in 1870 Rome wasliberated after the battle of Porta Pia, but Garibaldi was in France to fight versus the Prussians, in defenseof Digione. After the defeat of the French he returned in Italy and dedited before to the politics and after retired himself in Caprera. Here he died on 2 june 1882 and was buried on front of the sea he always loved.From that day a guard of honour of Italian armies is always near his grave.
Should you be able to find a man with a life so adventurous?
Heli and aircraft carrier Garibaldi of Marina Militare.
1/700 resin kit Delphis Model DM005.
Cruiser Garibaldi class Duca degli Abruzzi used by Regia Marina in WW2.
1/700 Resin kit Regia Marina RM004.
The same cruiser was used after the war as missile launcher cruiser by Marina Militare.
1/700 resin kit Regia Marina MM010.
|Amerigo Vespucci (1454-1512)|
|Navigator from Florence, in 1495 he managed in Siviglia a navigationsociety for Medici family's account organizing expeditions to the new world. There Vespucci meet Colombo,for whom he prepared the third expedition to America. In 1499 he went on his first voyage for Spain account.During that voyage led by Spanish Alonso de Ojeda, Vespucci explored the northern coast of South Americareaching the Rio de la Plata. In 1501 he explored again those territories with a Portuguese expedition. The meritof the Italian explorer was he to have understood the explored lands were not Asian but a new land which he named"New World". When in 1507 the German geographer and cartographer Waldseemuller, who traslated the reports ofAmerigo Vespucci voyages and designed his maps, published the book Cosmographiae Introductio containing athin card planisphere with the drawing of the earth including the new world too, in honour of him he gave tothe new lands the name America.|
Amerigo Vespucci, School Ship of Marina Militare.
1/350 plastic kit by Minicraft(ex Imai) 11304. 1/150 plastic kit by Heller 80807.
|Dante Alighieri (1265-1321)|
|Great writer and poet as well as soldier and politician, Dante was born in Florence on June 1265; his parents were Alighiero di Bellincione and lady Bella. Born in a noble family, Dante studied literature and the rhymes art of Guido Cavalcanti but he practised also horse-riding and arms handling.The most significant event in Dante's youth was when he first met the Florentine noblewoman Beatrice, that, after her death in 1290 - at the age of twenty -, inspired him his first work, the "Vita Nuova", written between 1291 and 1293.When he was young, Dante properly served the city-state of Florence, taking part in the Caprona siege and in the Campaldino battle, where Florentine Guelphs defeated the Ghibellines from Arezzo, allied to the Pope. Dante took part actively in the Florence political life, which was animated by two Guelph factions: the Blacks, that considered the Pope an ally against the imperial power, and the Whites, that wanted to remain independent. Dante did not approve this politics and supported the decision to exile both leaders of the two factions - one of them was his friend Cavalcanti - to keep the peace in Florence.On June 1st 1301, in a speech made at the Council of the Hundred, Dante asserted that the Pope must not be supported in any way and , then, he was sent - as a messenger - to Rome to convince the Pope Boniface VIII of not to send Charles of Valois to Florence in support to the Blacks; but, while Dante was in Rome, Charles of Valois entered in Florence on November 1st and the Blacks came into power. Consequently, they started political revenges against the Whites, in which Dante was involved: in fact, he was charged with conspiracy against the Pope and with having chased away the Blacks from Florence, so he was sentenced to two years' exile with the suspension from any public office.Dante began to wander and he was given hospitality in various courts: in 1304 he was in Verona at Bartholomew of the Scala's and in 1306 in Sarzana at Malaspina's. In 1310, after the Henry VII of Luxemburg arrival in Italy, Dante hoped to free Florence, but many Guelph city-states united against Henry and, after his premature death in 1313, Dante gave up all hopes to go back to Florence. In 1315, Dante moved to Lucca; then, in 1316, he moved again to Verona, at Cangrande of the Scala's court, where he remained until 1319; he then moved to Ravenna, at Guy of Polenta's court.Dante passed away on September 14th 1321, while he was going to Venice where he still hoped to gather supports to free Florence.Dante is universally known as the author of the "Divine Comedy", a work that is still included in the syllabuses of the Italian schools.|
Battleship "Dante Alighieri", employed by the Regia Marina (Italian Royal Navy) in the 1st WW.
Delphis Model kit DM 027 - 1/700 scale.
|Raimondo Montecuccoli (1609-1680)|
|Born in the castle of Montecuccolo, near Pavullo, on 21 Feb.1609, became a famous captainof the German Imperial Army, writer, military theoretician and philosopher. First he fought against the Swedishin 30 years War. He shone during the attack to Neubrandenburg where he climbed the wall and opened a door allowing the troops of gen. Tilly in the town. |
Cruiser Raimondo Montecuccoli employed by Regia Marina in W.W.2.
1/700 resin kit by Regia Marina RM008.
The Proportional Clock
© All rights reserved.
|If you are interested to pre-Inca civilization of Tiwanaku enter this site. The author Cesare Berrini, scholar of the time's analogue form, realized a mathematical representation of Tiwanaku calendar, the Proportional Clock, which is suitable for employing in several fields of architecture as object of interior decoration or as structure for exteriors:squares, steeples, fountains and others. Berrini is searching for sponsors to realize those projects. So then Mr architects, come forward!|
|Giovanni de Medici named Giovanni delle Bande Nere (1498-1526)|
|Captain of the Papal State, already in 1517 he was commander of a mounted band engaged by Pope Leone X against Della Rovere family. Giovanni was deeply devoted to the pope and, afterhis death, he imposed the black color of the mourning to his armbands and was named 'delle Bande Nere'(of Black Armbands).|
In 1521 he fought against the French of Francesco I at the orders of Prospero Colonna; in 1522 was atBicocca battle, near Milano. In the meantime pope Clemente VII defected to the French and in 1525 Giovanni de Medici fought at Pavia against the imperial troops of Charles V king of Spain and emperor of Germany.The French troops were defeated and Francesco I captured; in a letter to the mother the king of France wrotethe famous phrase "all is lost except the honour", in fact the honour was saved by the heroism of his troopsin battle. At Pavia Giovanni put up valiant resistance but was injuried and forced to retreat with his bands.
In November 1526 the imperial troops, determined to reach Rome, came in Italy from Brennero with 12000 Landskenechts led by captain Giorgio von Frundsberg, and marching trough the Brescia's Garda lake valleysreached the duchy of Mantova where planned to cross the Po river, tracked from Giovanni de Medici and hismounted Bande Nere. On day 22 the Lands arrived in the Serraglio fortress of Curtatone where found the drawbridges downand crossed them reaching Borgoforte on day 23. The Bande Nere reached Curtatone in the late evening andfound the drawbridges on for the night and were forced to wait the morning after suffering a signal delay.The plan of Frunsberg was to leave the Serraglio crossing the bridge on the Mincio river at Governolo, thenturning up it to prevent the pursuers from reaching him, and crossing the Po at Ostiglia with no danger.The plan was a success because, when Giovanni de Medici on day 25 reached the rearguard of the landskenechtsat Governolo, these were already crossing the bridge. During the day there were many assaults of Bande Nerebut in the return to the Borgoforte camp Giovanni was badly wounded in the right leg with a shot of falconet.Carried to Mantova in the Gonzaga castle, he had the leg amputated and died twentyeighth 3 days after.The Bande Nere without commander stopped the pursuit. The Lands crossed the Po and joined the Germans arrivedfrom Milano marching to south.
Rome was besieged and plundered in 1527.
Cruiser Giovanni dalle Bande Nere used by Regia Marina in W.W.2.
1/700 resin kit by Delphis Models DM018.
|Eugenio Di Savoia (1663-1736)|
|Eugene of Savoy was born in Paris on October 18th, 1663; his parents were the Prince Eugene Maurice and lady Olympia Mancini. Being of a delicate constitution, he was initiated - as a child - into the ecclesiastical career. After his father death among the General Turenne's suite, Eugene began to strengthen his body practising hard physical drills until to get fit for the military career. He refused to side with the King of France Louis XIV, offering instead his services to the Emperor of Austria Leopold I who was fighting against the Turks.|
In 1683, Eugene proved his bravery in the Vienna siege; then, fighting together with John Sobieski of Poland, he defeated the Kara Mustafà's infidels in Kahlenberg and he was promoted colonel of a horse-dragoons regiment. The Savoy Dragoons Rgt. became his personal escort, following the Prince in all his military campaigns and covering itself with glory.The war continued and the Turks lost Hungary - now under the Hapsburg - and Athens.On September 11th, 1697, Eugene of Savoy defeated the sultan Mustafà II and his Turks in Zentha, the first battle in which he was at the head of the imperial troops.
On July 9th, 1701, he fought at Carpi, where he defeated the Franco-Spanish troops commanded by the Marshal of France Catinat; then, the military operations against the French continued; from Paris came the reinforcements under the command of Villeroi, who was driven back - on September 1st - at Chiari and then forced to withdraw in the Cremona fortress. There, during the night between January 31st and February 1st, 1702, 400 imperial grenadiers under the command of the Prince Eugene stole into the fortress through a ditch secretly dug near the gate of St. Magdalene, taking prisoner the whole garrison and a number of French generals (among them, Villeroi himself); the Prince's troops were then forced to withdraw, however taking with them the prisoners.
The war continued and the French - now under the command of the Duke of Vendome - besieged Mantua and Trento, but they were drove back. In 1704, Victor Amadeus II of Savoy dropped the French cause and sided with the Imperials, but he was besieged in Piedmont. In April 1705 the Prince Eugene, determined to rush to the help of the Piedmont, came down the Brenner Pass with a new 28,000-men army, ferried across the Garda Lake as far as Salò and headed for the Adda river, but on August 16th - at Cassano - he was wounded and forced to withdraw at Treviglio; then he came back in Vienna to cure himself, leaving his troops to spend the winter in the Verona area.
In May 1706, Turin is besieged by the Feuillade's 44,000 strong army with 180 cannons: Eugene of Savoy then comes back in Italy, gathers his troops in Verona and - in July - heads for Turin; on August 19th he and his troops pass through Stradella; on 23rd they are at Voghera and on 31st , at Villa Stellone, they meet the small army corps of Victor Amadeus II.On September 1st both the Savoy Princes were on the Superga hill watching the enemy positions, then they decided to give battle. On September 7th, 1706, the French troops under the command of the Duke of Orleans were definitively defeated in Turin and forced to come back in France; the famous basilica on the Superga hill was then built as a devotion token.The defeat consequences were serious to the Louis XIV's kingdom: Spain lost Sardinia and the Kingdom of Naples, the Monferrato region was ceded to the House of Savoy, Milan and Mantua remained under Austria. But the battles against the French continued: the war moved to the north, in Sweden and in the Flanders, where the Prince Eugene fought with the Duke of Marlborough, together with the English and the Dutch, in the battles of Oudenard (1708) and Malplaquet (1709) and in the one of Denain (1712) in which he was defeated; he then came to the Peace of Utrecht (April 11th, 1713), where Philip V was acknowledged King of Spain, the Brandenburg Elector Frederick I was appointed King of Prussia and the Duke of Savoy was given the title of King of Savoy, Monferrato and Sicily.
The war between Austria and France lasted still one year, until the Peace of Rastadt was diplomatically arranged between the Prince Eugene and the Duke of Villars.
The last Eugene's battles were fought against the Turks again. In fact, Austria entered into an alliance with Venice and sent the Prince in the lower Danube area: on August 6th, 1716, he defeated the Turks at Petervaradino, then, with 85,000 men, he headed for Belgrade that was besieged in 1717. The city was garrisoned by a 24,000-men force and, in July, the troops of the Grand Vizier Hutschi Alì - 185,000 men and 250 cannons - reinforced the besieged, surrounding the Imperials in their own field. After a three-weeks delay, Eugene assaulted the Turks' field, putting to rout the Vizier's troops and remaining himself wounded by a scimitar blow; the Turks lost 23,000 men and all the cannons. On August 17th, 1717, Belgrade surrendered and the year after - on July 21st - was arranged the Peace of Passarovitz.
Eugene of Savoy fought in 33 campaigns and he was wounded 7 times; he was also a clever diplomat, dictating the peaces with the French and the Turks.
Fond of sciences and fine arts, Eugene patronized men of letters and artists, and among them also the historian Peter Giannone.
The Prince died at his home in Vienna on April 20th, 1736, surrounded by his books and pictures.
Cruiser "Eugenio di Savoia", "Duca d'Aosta" class; employed by the Regia Marina during the WW II.
Delphis Models kit No. DM024, 1/700 scale.
Scirè battle, Feb.29th / Mar.5th 1936; Ethiopian War 1935-36.
|Orders of Battle:|
At the end of February 1936, the 40,000-strenght army under the command of Ras Immirù and Degiac Aialeu Burrù, coming from south and after crossing the Tacazzè river, stood on the defensive at Selaclacà in the Scirè region, west of Adua. The Italians, under the command of the Maresciallo (Field-Marshal) Pietro Badoglio, were approaching from east - in the Adua / Axum area - with the II Army Corps ( comprehending the Gavinana, Gran Sasso and 21 Aprile Divisions, the III Eritrean Brigade, the Spahis Unit and the Army Corps' artillery Units, plus some local irregular troops loyal to the Italians) and from north - in the Dechi Tesfà area - with the IV Army Corps (Cosseria and 1° Febbraio Divisions, 1st Eritrean Battalion).From Mount Coietzà heights, the enemy controlled the three roads that linked up Selaclacà with Adua (eastwards), Az Darò (north-westwards, through the Scirè depression) and the Tacazzè river fords (southwards); consequently, the main objective was to reach and to free the area from the Ethiopians. The II Army Corps moved on along the track that linked up Adua with Selaclacà: it was an easy 30 kilometers journey through level terrain, only partly hilly and with very little brushwood; an area ill-suited to ambushes. The IV Army Corps, instead, had to cross the Mareb river and to pass through the Medebai Tabor plateau - covered with heavy spiny vegetation that slowed the march down - prior to get to Az Darò, where the situation got better because there was a track reaching Semamà first, then Selaclacà.It was difficult to coordinate the contemporaneous manoeuvres of the two formations, because while the II Army Corps was the nearest one and went on easily, the IV Army Corps had to cover a 90 kilometers distance on a hard and unknown terrain.The Ethiopians took advantage of a considerable mobility: they knew the ground and, so, they would have tried to attack and destroy the IV Army Corps first, less numerous and slowed down by the insidious terrain; so, according to the Italian operations plan, the II Army Corps would have been the first to meet the enemy, engaging the Ethiopians while the arriving IV Army Corps would have attacked on the flank, forcing the enemies to retreat southwards, towards the Tacazzè river.On February 27th, after to have set up this plan of operations, Field Marshal Badoglio moved to Adi Qualà, the forward command post north of Adua from which he would have coordinated the manoeuvers.First of all, it was important to organize the logistics and supplies.It was not a problem for the II Army Corps, while it was a big one for the IV Army Corps, so the works to link up the Obel with the Mareb fords were completed in two days and a new forward base was set at Zeuf Emmì - on the Eritrea/Ethiopia border - that would have ensured supplies and munitions during the IV Army Corps advance.
On February 29, the II Army Corps began its advance towards the Mount Coietzà, drawing up the 21 Aprile and Gavinana Divisions on the heights to the east of Selaclacà. While the Camicie Nere (Black Shirts) belonging to the 21 Aprile Division reached the position without meeting any resistance, some Gavinana Division units (two battalions belonging to the 83rd Infantry Regiment and one artillery group belonging to the 10th Artillery Rgt.) were going on to Selaclacà, when, on the Haimanal heights, they were attacked by strong enemy units, suffering heavy casualties. The remaining battalions belonging to the 83rd Inf. Rgt., together with two more artillery groups, rushed to the help of the Gavinana units and, after having stopped the enemies, they drew up on the defensive, resisting enemy attacks all night long.In the meanwhile, also the Gran Sasso Division was sent in.During these operations the IV Army Corps started to move with a vanguard (41st Inf. Rgt., 1st Machine-Gunners Bn., 128th Legione Camicie Nere) that occupied Enda Mariam.On March 1st, ascertained the impossibility to move the troops forward because the II Army Corps was drew up on the defensive, the whole day was spent to draw up the troops for the attack. The IV Army Corps, lacking water and advancing with difficulty because the hard terrain, reached Mai Tzadà; a few isolated enemies tried to slow down the advancing troops but they were easily drove back.On March 2nd, the II Army Corps resumed its advance towards the Mount Coietzà, fighting, in the afternoon, a hard battle against Ethiopian regular troops supported by automatic weapons; the enemies were then drove back thanks to artillery support and air bombardments. In the evening, The IV Army Corps reached Az Nebrid, still too far from the operations area, and it was supplied by air drops of food supplies and oats for the mules. The Italian Air Force watched also the movements of the Ethiopian troops that, after two days of hard fighting and heavy casualties, began to retire to avoid the surrounding by the two Italian Army Corps. On March 3rd, in the early morning hours, the Ethiopians sped up their disorderly retreat towards the Tacazzè river, always chased by the Italian Air Force. The river crossing was made difficult thanks to the effective bombing and strafing performed by the Italian aircraft, that, using small fire-bombs, set fire to the brushwood near the fords, causing heavy casualties to the enemy.The II Army Corps resumed the advance, undisturbed and never coming in contact with the enemies: in the evening the Gavinana Division reached Chessad Abahò, to the north of Selaclacà; the Eritrean Brigade, together with some native irregular troops, got to the Mount Coietzà and the 21 Aprile Division reached Chessad af Gagà, in the south-west. Towards evening and again without meeting any resistance, the IV Army Corps reached Az Darò.The Scirè battle was a victory that put the last Ras Immirù's army to flight, defeated with heavy casualties and under constant attack by the Italian Air Force.
The Italian total casualties (dead and wounded men) were 63 officers, 894 soldiers and 12 Eritrean soldiers.The Ethiopians lost about 7500 men (4000 in battle an 3500 because air attacks).
Submarine "Scirè", "Adua" class, employed, in the 2nd WW, by the Regia Marina (Italian Royal Navy) in support to the combat-swimmers belonging to the X Mas.
Delphis Models kit DM 021 - 1/700 scale.
Dolphin Model kits D001, D003 - 1/400 scale.
|Giovanni da Verrazzano (1485-1528)|
|Navigator from Florence, led two expeditions for the king Francis Iof France. In 1524 he was charged to conquer new territories and to find a pass between Atlantic and Pacificeasier than Magellano straits leading to west towards China. He leaved French coasts with four vessels andreached Madera island; from here he leaved again on 17 January with a vessel only arriving in view of the coastof the present South Carolina. Then he moved exploring the American coasts, first towards south, after returningto north because he was in fear of the Spanish fleet which controlled those seas and arrived to the estuaryof Hudson river, going on until to New Scotland at 54 degrees of latitude North.|
The expedition of 1528is not well known. We know he went towards the Mid America coasts always searching a pass to west, but he neverreturned to home again. Historians presume he and his men were killed by natives of Caribbeans or Brasil.
Verrazzano is famous for the discovery of the Hudson river coast, where today New York stands.
Destroyer Giovanni da Verrazzano, class Navigatori, used by Regia Marina in WW2.
1/700 resin kit Regia Marina RM006.